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        半固态压铸技术:1971年美国麻省理工学院的D.B.Spencer和M.C.Flemings发明了一种搅动铸造(stir cast)新工艺,即用旋转双桶机械搅拌法制备出Sn-15wt.%Pb合金流变浆料以来,半固态金属(SSM)铸造工艺技术经历了40余年的研究与发展。搅动铸造制备的合金一般称为非枝晶组织合金或称部分凝固铸造合金(Partially Solidified Casting Alloys)。由于采用该技术的产品具有质量高、高强度、高性能和高合金化的特点,又称高强度压铸铝。开始主要集中用于汽车的关键部件上,例如,用于轮毂,可提高性能、减轻重量、降低废品率。此后,逐渐在其它领域获得应用,生产高性能和近净成形的部件。半固态金属铸造工艺的成形机械也相继推出。目前已研制生产出从500吨到1750吨的半固态铸造用压铸机,成形件重量可达15kg以上。

        当前,在美国和欧洲,该项工艺技术的应用较为广泛。半固态金属铸造工艺被认为是21世纪最具发展前途的近终成形和新材料制备技术之一。在我国,半固态压铸成形技术已被列为国家 “十三五”计划重点支持研发的汽车轻量化技术之一,是国家节能与新能源汽车制造路线图重点发展的技术。


          Semi-solid die-casting technology : In 1971, D.B. Spencer and M.C. Flemings in Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the United States, invented a new stir cast process, i.e., since the rheology slurry of Sn-15 wt.% Pb alloy was prepared by the rotating double barrel mechanical stirring method, technology of Semi-Solid Metal (SSM) casting process has experienced more than 40 years of research and development. Alloys produced by stirring casting are generally referred to as non-dendritic or partially solidified casting alloys. Due to the high quality, high strength, high performance and high alloying characteristics of the products using this technology, it is also called high-strength die-cast aluminum. It mainly focused on the key parts of automobile at beginning, for example, it can improve the performance and reduce the weight, scrap rate of wheel hub.  Then it has been gradually applied in other fields to produce high performance and near-net shape parts. The forming machinery for semi-solid metal casting process is also introduced. At present, the semi-solid die-casting machines have been developed and manufactured from 500 tons to 1,750 tons, the weight of parts produced can reach 15kg or more.

      Currently, this technology is widely used in the United States and Europe. The semi-solid metal casting process is considered as one of the most promising technologies for near-net forming and new material preparation in the 21st century. In China, semi-solid die-casting has been listed as one of the key lightweight automotive technologies to be researched and developed under major support of nation's “13th Five-Year Plan”, and is a key technology to be developed for national energy-saving and new energy vehicle manufacturing roadmaps.

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